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Symptoms of HIV and AIDS

There are numerous symptoms associated with "HIV Infection" and "AIDS" but some of the information about them seems arbitrary or contradictory.

The quotes are classified as:

AIDS and Tuberculosis (TB)

“The prevalence of HIV-1 infection among children with clinical and culture-confirmed TB in Africa varies from 13% to 70%…almost 50% of children in our clinic had been treated for TB disease”
van Kooten Niekerk NK et al. The First 5 Years of the Family Clinic for HIV at Tygerberg Hospital: Family Demographics, Survival of Children and Early Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy. J Trop Pediatr. 2005 Jun 9
[In Eastern Europe, Russia and the easternmost former Russian republics up to 2001] tuberculosis appears as the first illness indicative of AIDS in 1,673 (53% of cases [with this information reported. There were a total of 3,633 AIDS cases reported]).”
Hamers FF, Downs AM. HIV in central and eastern Europe. Lancet. 2003 Mar 22;361:1035-44.
“The results of some studies show closely similar recurrence rates [of TB] in individuals positive and negative for HIV-1. However, the results of other studies show a higher rate of recurrence in HIV-1 positive patients than in HIV-1-negative patients, especially when regimens containing thioacetazone are used, and in patients with low levels of immunity”
Sonnenberg P et al. HIV-1 and recurrence, relapse, and reinfection of tuberculosis after cure: a cohort study in South African mineworkers. Lancet. 2001 Nov;358(17):1687-93.
“Active TB was found at autopsy in 38 of 75 (50.7%) of the HIV-1-positive cadavers...[and]...Bacterial pneumonia was found in 22 (29.3%) of the HIV-1-positive cadavers. An interstitial bronchopneumonia was found in 13 (17.3%) cases.”
Rana FS et al. Autopsy study of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative adult medical patients in Nairobi, Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 May 1;24:23-29.
[Dr. Martin Okot-Nwang of Mulago Hospital, Uganda] “A patient who has TB who is HIV-positive would appear exactly the same as a patient who has TB and is HIV-negative. Clinically, both patients will present with long fever, marked loss of weight, both patients would present with prolonged cough and in both cases the cough could equally be productive [with phlegm]. Now, therefore clinically I cannot differentiate the two…I think if they include pulmonary TB as AIDS defining then almost all the TBs in Africa will be AIDS”.”
Shenton J. AIDS and Africa. BBC Dispatches. 1993
“The HIV-positive [Tuberculosis] patients had less radiologic evidence of disease and significantly fewer zones of lung affected with cavities. The response to treatment was similar, but with HIV-positive paatients more likely to become culture negative by 28 days. The differences that exist between HIV-positive and HIT-negative patients are minor, and standard regimens are at least as effective in HIV-positive patients in the first month of treatment”
Brindle RJ et al. Quantitative bacillary response to treatment in HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Apr;147(4):958-61.
“Intravenous drug abusers appear to be at special risk of acquiring tuberculosis, and a high rate of infection in this group was reported well before AIDS began.”
Goldman KP. AIDS and tuberculosis. BMJ. 1987;295:511-2.

Courtesy Alberta Reappraising AIDS Society, December 7, 2012.

© Copyright December 7, 2012 by Rethinking AIDS.